05 Aug 2014
psychotherapy, history of psychotherapy
Psychotherapy, or personal counseling using a psychotherapist, is an intentional social relationship used by trained psychotherapists to aid a client or affected person in problems of living. It aims to increase the individual's sense of their own well-being. Psychotherapists employ a range of techniques based on experiential partnership building, interaction, dialogue and behavior change and that are designed to increase the mental health of a client or patient, or to improve group relationships (such as inside a family). Psychotherapy may also be performed by practitioners with a number of different credentials, including psychiatry, clinical mindset, clinical social work, therapy psychology, mental health therapy, clinical or psychiatric interpersonal marriage, work and loved ones therapy, rehabilitation counseling, music therapy, occupational therapy, psychiatric others, medical and psychoanalysis. It may be legally regulated, voluntarily regulated or unregulated, depending on the jurisdiction. Specifications of these professions vary, but often require graduate school and supervised clinical experience.
Most forms of psychotherapy use spoken conversation. Some also use various other forms of conversation such as the written word, drama and artwork narrative scenario or music. Psychotherapy with children and their parents often involves play, dramatization (i.e. role-play), and drawing, with a co-constructed narrative from these no-verbal and displaced modes of interacting. Psychotherapy occurs within a structured experience between a trained therapist and client(s). Purposeful, theoretically based psychotherapy began in the nineteenth century with psychoanalysis; since then, lots of other approaches have been created and continue to be created. Therapy is generally used in response to many different specific or non-specific manifestations of medically diagnosable and/or existential crises. Treatment of everyday problems is a lot more often referred to as counseling (a difference originally adopted by Carl Rogers). The phrase counseling is sometimes used interchangeably with "psychotherapy", however. While some psychotherapeutic treatments are designed to treat the patient making use of the medical model, many psychotherapeutic approaches do not adhere to the symptom-based model of "illness/cure". Some practitioners, such as humanistic therapists, see themselves a lot more in a facilitative/helper role. Therapists are required, and usually legally bound, to respect client or individual confidentiality, as sensitive and deeply personal topics are frequently discussed during psychotherapy. The critical importance of confidentiality is enshrined in the regulatory psychotherapeutic organizations' codes of ethical practice.