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05 Aug 2014 - 09:26:55 am

Status for psychotherapy

Although modern, scientific psychology is frequently dated at the 1879 opening up of the first psychological clinic by Wilhelm Wundt, attempts to create methods for treating and assessing mental distress existed well before. The earliest recorded methods were a combination of magical, religious and or medical perspectives. The earliest recorded approaches were a mixture of religious, or and magical medical views. Early examples of such early psychotherapists included Patanjali, Rhazes, Padmasambhava and Avicenna and Rumi (see Islamic psychology).

Within the 1800s, one could have her or his head examined, literally, making use of phrenology, the study of the shape from the skull developed by respected anatomist Franz Joseph Gall. Other popular treatments included physiognomy-the study of the shape in the face-and mesmerism, developed by Franz Anton Mesmer-designed to relieve psychological distress by the use of magnets. Spiritualism and Phineas Quimby's "mental healing" approach that was very like contemporary concept of "positive visualization" were also well-known.

While the scientific community eventually came to reject all of these techniques, academic psychologists also were not concerned with serious types of mental illness. That location was already being addressed by the developing fields of psychiatry and neurology in the asylum movement and the use of moral therapy. It wasn't until the end of the 1800s, around the time when Sigmund Freud was first developing his "talking cure" in Vienna, that the first clinically clinical application of psychology began-at the University of Pennsylvania, to help children with understanding disabilities.

Although clinical psychologists originally focused on psychological assessment, the practice of psychotherapy, once the only domain of psychiatrists, grew to be integrated into the profession right after the Second World War. Psychotherapy began with the practice of psychoanalysis, the "talking cure" developed by Sigmund Freud. Soon after, theorists such as Alfred Adler and Carl Jung started to introduce new conceptions about psychological functioning and change. These and many other theorists assisted to develop the general orientation now called psychodynamic therapy, which include the various therapies based on Freud's essential principle of making the unconscious conscious.

In the 1920s, behaviorism became the dominant paradigm, and remained so up until the 1950s. Behaviorism used strategies based on theories of operant conditioning, classical conditioning and social learning theory. Significant contributors included Joseph Wolpe, Hans Eysenck, and B.F. Skinner. Because behaviorism denied or ignored inner mental activity, this period symbolizes a general slowing of advancement within the field of psychotherapy.

Starting in the 1950s, two main orientations evolved independently in response to behaviorism-cognitivism and existential-humanistic therapy.[6"> The humanistic motion largely developed from both Existential theories of writers like Rollo Viktor and May Frankl and the Person-centered psychotherapy of Carl Rogers. These orientations all centered less on the more and unconscious on promoting positive, holistic change through the development of a supportive, genuine, and empathic healing relationship.

During the 1950s, Albert Ellis developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and few years later Aaron T. Beck developed cognitive therapy. Both of these included therapy aimed at changing a person's distorted thinking, by contrast using the insight-based method of psychodynamic therapies or the newer relational approach of humanistic therapies. Cognitive and behavioral approaches were mixed during the 1970s, resulting in Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Becoming oriented towards symptom-relief, collaborative empiricism and modifying core beliefs, this method has gained widespread acceptance as a primary treatment for numerous disorders.

Since the 1970s, other major perspectives have been developed and adopted within the area. Perhaps the two biggest have already been Systems Therapy-which focuses on group and family dynamics-and Transpersonal psychology, which focuses on the religious facet of human experience. Other important orientations developed during the last three decades include Feminist treatment, Somatic Psychology, Expressive therapy, and applied Positive mindset. Clinical psychology in China developed towards a more integrative socially-orientated therapy methodology. Practice in India developed from both conventional metaphysical and ayurvedic techniques and Western methodologies.

With all the advent of more robust investigation findings regarding psychotherapy, there is growing evidence that most of the major therapies are about of equal effectiveness, with all the key common element being a strong therapeutic alliance. Due to this, more training programs and psychologists are now adopting an eclectic orientation. This integrative motion attempts to combine the most effective factors of all the schools of practice.


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Psychotherapy, or personal counseling using a psychotherapist, is an intentional social relationship used by trained psychotherapists to aid a client or affected person in problems of living. It aims to increase the individual's sense of their own well-being. Psychotherapists employ a range of techniques based on experiential partnership building, interaction, dialogue and behavior change and that are designed to increase the mental health of a client or patient, or to improve group relationships (such as inside a family). Psychotherapy may also be performed by practitioners with a number of different credentials, including psychiatry, clinical mindset, clinical social work, therapy psychology, mental health therapy, clinical or psychiatric interpersonal marriage, work and loved ones therapy, rehabilitation counseling, music therapy, occupational therapy, psychiatric others, medical and psychoanalysis. It may be legally regulated, voluntarily regulated or unregulated, depending on the jurisdiction. Specifications of these professions vary, but often require graduate school and supervised clinical experience.
Most forms of psychotherapy use spoken conversation. Some also use various other forms of conversation such as the written word, drama and artwork narrative scenario or music. Psychotherapy with children and their parents often involves play, dramatization (i.e. role-play), and drawing, with a co-constructed narrative from these no-verbal and displaced modes of interacting. Psychotherapy occurs within a structured experience between a trained therapist and client(s). Purposeful, theoretically based psychotherapy began in the nineteenth century with psychoanalysis; since then, lots of other approaches have been created and continue to be created. Therapy is generally used in response to many different specific or non-specific manifestations of medically diagnosable and/or existential crises. Treatment of everyday problems is a lot more often referred to as counseling (a difference originally adopted by Carl Rogers). The phrase counseling is sometimes used interchangeably with "psychotherapy", however. While some psychotherapeutic treatments are designed to treat the patient making use of the medical model, many psychotherapeutic approaches do not adhere to the symptom-based model of "illness/cure". Some practitioners, such as humanistic therapists, see themselves a lot more in a facilitative/helper role. Therapists are required, and usually legally bound, to respect client or individual confidentiality, as sensitive and deeply personal topics are frequently discussed during psychotherapy. The critical importance of confidentiality is enshrined in the regulatory psychotherapeutic organizations' codes of ethical practice.